The Lower Himalayas, lying in the southern reaches of the state, are the most densely populated. [8], The Kingdom of Sikkim was founded by the Namgyal dynasty in the 17th century. 2. Some of the most popular festivals, notable in Sikkim are Losoong, Drupka Teshi, Bumchu, Saga Dawa, Dassin and Phang Lhabsol. Before October 2018, the closest operational airport to Sikkim was Bagdogra Airport near Siliguri in northern West Bengal. The district capitals are Gangtok, Mangan, Namchi and Gyalshing respectively. Every year during the summer i.e. [105] The railway line up to Rangpo is expected to be completed in 2021. The average annual temperature for most of Sikkim is around 18 °C (64 °F). [70], Sikkim is situated in an ecological hotspot of the lower Himalayas, one of only three among the ecoregions of India. [47] The pass, which had previously been closed since the 1962 Sino-Indian War, was an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road. At an altitude of 4,700 feet (1,400 m) above sea level, it is one of the five highest airports in India. Christians in Sikkim are mostly descendants of Lepchas who were converted by British missionaries in the late 19th century, and constitute around 10 percent of the population. The soil is coarse, with large concentrations of iron oxide; it ranges from neutral to acidic and is lacking in organic and mineral nutrients. Festivals in Sikkim. [102] The five-station line is intended to support both economic development and Indian Army operations and was initially planned to be completed by 2015,[103][104] though as of 2013 its construction has met with delays. The closest major railway stations are Siliguri Junction and New Jalpaiguri in neighbouring West Bengal. Nepal. India is a land of festivals and Sikkim, being a part, doesn't stay behind. Buddhism is followed by 27.4% of the population, while Christianity is followed by 9.9%. A branch of the highway from Melli connects western Sikkim. Trade through the pass remains hampered by Sikkim's limited infrastructure and government restrictions in both India and China, though the volume of traded goods has been steadily increasing.[91][92]. Higher up are Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and high-altitude wetlands, which are home to a wide variety of rhododendrons and wildflowers. Alpine-type vegetation is typically found between an altitude of 3,500 to 5,000 metres (11,500 to 16,400 ft). Momos – steamed dumplings filled with vegetables, beef or pork and served with soup – are a popular snack. to the north and the Indian province of West Bengal to its south. [87][88] The Playwin lottery has been a notable success in the state. Certain competitions are organized and merrymaking lasts for several days. [73], Sikkim also has a rich diversity of arthropods, many of which remain unstudied. Festivals in Sikkim are a story that never fails to attract attention and admiration which is one of the best time to visit sikkim. Sikkim came under the suzerainty of India, which controlled its external affairs, defence, diplomacy and communications. [27], Following the beginning of British rule in neighbouring India, Sikkim allied with Britain against their common adversary, Nepal. The summit of Kangchenjunga, the world's third-highest peak, is the state's highest point, situated on the border between Sikkim and Nepal. Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia By James Minahan, 2012, indiatoday.in/amp/education-today/gk-current-affairs/story/mini-sikkim-in-making-308081-2016-02-10, Kanchenjunga and Sikkim Press: How Media Started Its Practice in Sikkim, the third-smallest GDP among Indian states, Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests, Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, third-smallest GDP among India's 28 states, List of institutions of higher education in Sikkim, National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT), Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, "2011 Census reference tables – total population", "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India", "Sikkim claims India's first mixed-criteria UNESCO World Heritage Site", "Why is Sikkim's merger with India being questioned by China? Chinese officials were in a quandary on this issue, as any protests to India would mean an explicit endorsement of India's governance of Sikkim, which China still recognised as an independent state occupied by India. Of the approximately 1,438 butterfly species found in the Indian subcontinent, 695 have been recorded in Sikkim. Sikkim University began operating in 2008 at Yangang, which is situated about 28 kilometres (17 mi) from Singtam. [23] The Buddhist saint Padmasambhava, also known as Guru Rinpoche, is said to have passed through the land in the 8th century. Sikkim is a state that shares its borders with Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan and West Bengal. This festival is considered as one of the holiest Buddhist festival for the Mahayana Buddhists. Despite pressures from an India "bent on annexation", Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal was able to preserve autonomy and shape a "model Asian state" where the literacy rate and per capita income were twice as high as neighbouring Nepal, Bhutan and India. Although tensions between the Lepchas and the Nepalese escalated during the merger of Sikkim with India in the 1970s, there has never been any major degree of communal religious violence, unlike in other Indian states. Sikkim has the third-highest per capita alcoholism rate amongst all Indian states, behind Punjab and Haryana. It is organised by Saptak School of Music and takes place January first to the thirteenth every year, and is attended by hundreds of people. Among the state's most notable hot springs are those at Phurchachu, Yumthang, Borang, Ralang, Taram-chu and Yumey Samdong. Tibetans reside mostly in the northern and eastern reaches of the state. Bhandari held on to power in the 1984 and 1989 elections. [121], According to the 2011 census, 57.8% follow Hinduism, making it the state's majority religion. Sikkim's Nepalese majority celebrate all major Hindu festivals, including Tihar (Diwali) and Dashain (Dashera). [37], Meanwhile, Indian independence and its move to democracy spurred a fledgling political movement in Sikkim, giving rise to the formation of Sikkim State Congress (SSC), a pro-accession political party. The party sent a plate of demands to the palace, including a demand for accession to India. [18] The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Drenjong (Wylie-transliteration: 'bras ljongs), which means "valley of rice",[19] while the Bhutias call it Beyul Demazong, which means '"the hidden valley of rice". [45] The 2003 agreement led to a thaw in Sino-Indian relations,[46] and on 6 July 2006, the Sikkimese Himalayan pass of Nathu La was opened to cross-border trade, becoming the first open border between India and China. Sikkim finds a unique [ citation needed ] place in the Indian Union in respect of her rich and unique culture and tradition and a melting pot of culture and traditions of various ethnic communities. The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Denjong which primarily means the valley of rice. Following the subsequent defeat of Gorkha, the Chinese Qing dynasty established control over Sikkim. Most of the inhabited regions of Sikkim experience a temperate climate, with temperatures seldom exceeding 28 °C (82 °F) in summer. [67], Sikkim has four districts – East Sikkim, North Sikkim, South Sikkim and West Sikkim. [125] The public and visual aesthetics of Sikkim are executed in shades of Vajrayana Buddhism and Buddhism plays a significant role in public life, even among Sikkim's majority Nepali Hindu population. [26] In 1791, China sent troops to support Sikkim and defend Tibet against the Gorkha Kingdom. Avyakta, Bilokan, the Journal of Hill Research, Khaber Khagaj, Panda, and the Sikkim Science Society Newsletter are among other registered publications.[142]. Sikkim, a hilly abode of the Hindus, the Buddhists and the Nepalese in northeast India, celebrates its rich cultural heritage through festivals round the year. The other major ethnic groups in Sikkim are Lepcha and Bhutia. Himalaya Darpan, a Nepali daily published in Siliguri, is one of the leading Nepali daily newspapers in the region. A fifth-generation descendant of Khye Bumsa, Phuntsog Namgyal, became the founder of Sikkim's monarchy in 1642, when he was consecrated as the first Chogyal, or priest-king, of Sikkim by the three venerated lamas at Yuksom. Sikkim's Nepalese majority celebrate all major Hindu festivals, including Tihar (Diwali) and Dashain (Dashera). Sikkim achieved its ambition to convert its agriculture to fully organic between 2003 and 2016, and became the first state in India to achieve this distinction. In lower elevations are found juniper, pine, firs, cypresses and rhododendrons from the Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests. [55], The hills of Sikkim mainly consist of gneiss and schist[56] which weather to produce generally poor and shallow brown clay soils. [36] A standstill agreement was signed in February 1948. [68] These four districts are further divided into 16 subdivisions; Pakyong, Rongli, Rangpo and Gangtok are the subdivisions of the East district. Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2011). And all these communities converge to celebrate this festival grandly. [143] There are a total of 1,157 schools in the state, including 765 schools run by the state government, seven central government schools and 385 private schools. [101] However, the New Sikkim Railway Project has been launched to connect the town of Rangpo in Sikkim with Sevoke on the West Bengal border. Sikkim constitutes mainly of three communities namely Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepali. Sikkim (Nepali: सिक्किम, Sikkimi: དེན་ཇོནྒ) has been a state in India since 1975. Meanwhile, the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for Nepalis in Sikkim. Thereafter, a referendum was held in which 97.5 per cent of voters supported abolishing the monarchy, effectively approving union with India. First, the 35th Amendment laid down a set of conditions that made Sikkim an "Associate State", a special designation not used by any other state. Soreng, Yuksom, Gyalshing and Dentam are the subdivisions of the West district. The campus of the National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT), under the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology of the Government of India, is at Pakyong in East Sikkim, and offers formal and informal education in the IT/ITES sector. As of 2014[update], the state had the third-smallest GDP among Indian states,[10] although it is also among the fastest-growing. [3] English is taught in schools and used in government documents. [48] More than 60 people died in Sikkim alone, and the city of Gangtok suffered significant damage.[49]. The rituals are performed with the utmost gusto and the celebrations are full of fanfare and zeal. [94][95] It has been constructed by the Airports Authority of India on 200 acres of land. Sikkim's climate ranges from sub-tropical in the south to tundra in the north. [126] Other religious minorities include Muslims of Bihari ethnicity and Jains, who each account for roughly one percent of the population. Following Indian independence, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the Union of India after 1947, and the Republic of India after 1950. [50] For the most part, the land is unfit for agriculture because of the rocky, precipitous slopes. This type of soil tends to support evergreen and deciduous forests. On 8 December 2008, it was announced that Sikkim had become the first state in India to achieve 100 per cent sanitation coverage, becoming completely free of public defecation, thus attaining the status of "Nirmal State". Ravongla, Jorethang, Namchi and Yangyang are the subdivisions of the South district. [80], Sikkim's nominal state gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at US$1.57 billion in 2014 constituting the third-smallest GDP among India's 28 states. According to the Vikram Samvat calendar, the festival begins with Kaag (crow) Tihar on Trayodashi of Kartik Krishna Paksha (the 13th day of the waning moon) and ends with Bhai (brother) Tika on Dwitiya of Kartik Sukla Paksha every year. Sikkim festival Calendar 2020, month & date wise listing of Sikkim festivals, Sikkim Festival Date 2020, Sikkim Holiday Calendar 2020, Fairs an Festival calendar 2020in Sikkim, Sikkim festivals and holidays for the year 2020. City of Gangtok suffered significant damage. 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