part of "Cirromorphida" (Cirroteuthidae, Stauroteuthidae), part of "Argonautoidea" (Argonautidae, Ocythoidae), part of "Argonautoidea" (Tremoctopodidae, Alloposidae), part of "Cirromorphida" (Opisthoteuthidae, Cirroctopodidae), Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence of the primary transcript of RNA molecules) than any other organisms. The largest specimen of this species to be scientifically documented was an animal with a live mass of 71 kg (156.5 lb). The octopus carries the shells underneath it with two arms, and progresses with an ungainly gait supported by its remaining arms held rigid. [26][27] The mantle cavity has muscular walls and contains the gills; it is connected to the exterior by a funnel or siphon. [18] In fact, few of a spawning's thousands of hatched babies will reach maturity. [104] Octopuses typically hide or disguise themselves by camouflage and mimicry; some have conspicuous warning coloration (aposematism) or deimatic behaviour. [108], When under attack, some octopuses can perform arm autotomy, in a manner similar to the way skinks and other lizards detach their tails. [35][36][37] In cold conditions with low oxygen levels, haemocyanin transports oxygen more efficiently than haemoglobin. For example, a stone carving found in the archaeological recovery from Bronze Age Minoan Crete at Knossos (1900–1100 BC) has a depiction of a fisherman carrying an octopus. Like other octopuses, the giant Pacific octopus subsists on a diet of crustaceans, mollusks and fish. Octopus facts for kids: Learn all about these cool invertebrates, with facts about octopus characteristics, behaviour, diet, habitat and defence mechanisms. The gonocoel is connected by the gonoduct to the mantle cavity, which it enters at the gonopore. The urine is first formed in the pericardial cavity, and is modified by excretion, chiefly of ammonia, and selective absorption from the renal appendages, as it is passed along the associated duct and through the nephridiopore into the mantle cavity. There is some speculation that he may first use his hectocotylus to remove any spermatophore or sperm already present in the female. [157] Octopuses have a food conversion efficiency greater than that of chickens, making octopus aquaculture a possibility. The size of an octopus greatly varies by species. It is able to grasp objects such as a metal tube, a magazine, or a ball, and to fill a glass by pouring water from a bottle. Females are slightly larger than males, but the size of any octopus varies greatly depending on nutrition, temperature, and available light. During crawling, the heart rate nearly doubles, and the animal requires ten or fifteen minutes to recover from relatively minor exercise. [168], Some robotics research is exploring biomimicry of octopus features. [90][99][100], Octopuses use camouflage when hunting and to avoid predators. The giant Pacific octopus, one of the two largest species of octopus, may live for as much as five years. They can be as short as an inch or as long as 20+ feet. [166] In 2012, this legislation was extended to include all cephalopods[167] in accordance with a general EU directive. Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the octopus to remove. [22] Most of the body is made of soft tissue allowing it to lengthen, contract, and contort itself. [85] The direction of travel depends on the orientation of the siphon. In an alternative method of swimming, some species flatten themselves dorso-ventrally, and swim with the arms held out sideways, and this may provide lift and be faster than normal swimming. Check the size of the octopus. A carcass of the seven-arm octopus, Haliphron atlanticus, weighed 61 kg (134 lb) and was estimated to have had a live mass of 75 kg (165 lb). The blood circulates through the aorta and capillary system, to the vena cavae, after which the blood is pumped through the gills by the auxiliary hearts and back to the main heart. Both the structures and editing sites are conserved in the coleoid genome and the mutation rates for the sites are severely hampered. [122] Octopuses are mostly soft tissue, and so fossils are relatively rare. The tract consists of a crop, where the food is stored; a stomach, where food is ground down; a caecum where the now sludgy food is sorted into fluids and particles and which plays an important role in absorption; the digestive gland, where liver cells break down and absorb the fluid and become "brown bodies"; and the intestine, where the accumulated waste is turned into faecal ropes by secretions and blown out of the funnel via the rectum. 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