It was deep enough there for boats to land when the tide was high". Kīlauea, the youngest and most active volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, has erupted almost continuously since 1983 to 2018 at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and other vents along the volcano's East Rift Zone. I think it has erupted actual andesite too, where Etna erupts low silica alkali basalts like Hualalai but at a relatively low temperature compared to a plume volcano. Spatter deposits, ʻaʻā and pahoehoe basalt lava flows. The most recent eruption in 1984 lasted 22 days and produced lava flows which reached to within about 7.2 km (4.5 miles) of Hilo, the largest population center on the Island of Hawai‘i. [5], A major subfeature of Hualālai is Puʻu Waʻawaʻa, Hawaiian for "many-furrowed hill", a volcanic cone standing 372 m (1,220 ft) tall and measuring over 1.6 km (1 mi) in diameter. Today the coast near Hualālai is dotted by vacation resorts, some built on historic flows, and a National Historical Park. [14], Since 1991, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has maintained a seismic recording station 3 km (1.9 mi) east of Hualālai's summit to monitor the volcano. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has divided the exposed lava flows and tephra erupted by Hualālai volcano during the last 112,000 years into 419 rock units of eight chronostratigraphic age groups. Although five vents were active at the time, only two produced flows that eventually reached the ocean. [14] This 1801 flow, known as the Huʻehuʻe flow, formed Keahole Point where Kona International Airport is now located, 11 km (6.8 mi) north of Kailua-Kona. [22] Both the Kona Village Resort and the Four Seasons Resort were damaged by the tsunami generated by the 2011 Sendai earthquake. [12] This presents a distinct hazard to the communities around it as well; for example, in the event of an eruption similar to the 1801 event, Kailua-Kona, which is 15 mi (24 km) from the volcano's summit, could be covered completely in a matter of hours. Mauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, has erupted 33 times since 1843. In the past 1,000 years, at least 10 eruptions produced lava flows and tephra cones from the rift zone that crosses the volcano from southwest to east and through Haleakalā Crater. There are two main attractions within the park: the Kaloko fishpond, an area of loko kuapa (rockwall fishponds) constructed of interlocking rocks across a natural embayment on the coast, and Honokōhau, a former extensive settlement on the south side of the park. Hualalai… The total output volume of the flow is estimated at over 300,000,000 m3 (0.072 cu mi). Lava flows less than 5,000 years old cover about 80 percent of the volcano. The relative unpreparedness of the residents in the area caused by the lull in activity would worsen the consequences of such an event. [27] The volcano's summit is about 969 m (3,179 ft) below sea level, located 30 km (22 miles) southeast of the Island of Hawai‘i. [4] It is the westernmost, third-youngest and the third-most active of the five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaiʻi, following Kīlauea and the much larger Mauna Loa. It was here that Kamehameha I rested after his eight-year campaign to unite the Hawaiian isles. [19], — John Papa Īʻī, court attendant of Kamehameha II. About 90 percent of the volcano is covered with lava flows less than 1,100 years in age. Each of the islands consists of primary volcanoes. Volcano Watch is a weekly article and activity update written by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and colleagues. The basalts erupted around Hekla and Katla are very similar to Etna basalts too, and also very similar in eruption much more strombolian than hawaiian and very little or no pahoehoe. [17] The flanks of the volcano do not pose a lower threat to the population than the area near the rift zones because the distance is short and the slopes are steep; lava poses as much of a threat as it does near its source. Despite maintaining a very low level of activity since its last eruption in 1801, and being unusually inactive for the last 2,000 years, Hualālai is still considered active, and is expected to erupt again some time within the next century. The recurrence of activity at the volcano seems to be every 200 to 300 years. [6][12], The 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake, with epicenter just to the north in Kiholo Bay near Māhukona, caused much damage in the area. Slope near the town of Holualoa than 4,000 years old cover about percent... 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